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May 17, 2005 · Friendship. Friendship, as understood here, is a distinctively personal relationship that is grounded in a concern on the part of each friend for the welfare of the other, for the other’s sake, and that involves some degree of intimacy. As such, friendship is undoubtedly central to our lives, in part because the special concern we have for ... Metaphor is a poetically or rhetorically ambitious use of words, a figurative as opposed to literal use. It has attracted more philosophical interest and provoked more philosophical controversy than any of the other traditionally recognized figures of speech. 1. Naming of Parts. 2.After the death of his son, Leland Stanford set up all of his money to go to the Stanford University, which he helped create, to the miners of California and the railroad. The school that Leland and his wife built in memory of their son, wh...In today’s fast-paced world, managing our health can be a challenging task. With so many responsibilities and distractions, it’s easy to forget about our physical and mental well-being. However, with the My Health at Stanford Login tool, ma...Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), which as of March 2018, has nearly 1600 entries online. From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is maintained and kept up-to-date by an expert or group of experts in the field. All entries and substantive updates are refereed by the members of a distinguished ...[This was the previous entry on Erasmus in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy — see the version history.] “Erasmus, Desiderius”, entry by Eric MacPhail in the The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Erasmus Center for Early Modern Studies, a joint initiative of Erasmus University Rotterdam and Rotterdam City Library.Social norms, the informal rules that govern behavior in groups and societies, have been extensively studied in the social sciences. Anthropologists have described how social norms function in different cultures (Geertz 1973), sociologists have focused on their social functions and how they motivate people to act (Durkheim 1895 [1982], 1950 ...Parenthood and Procreation. First published Thu Jan 26, 2012; substantive revision Wed Mar 31, 2021. The ethics of parenthood and procreation apply not only to daily acts of decision-making by parents and prospective procreators, but also to law, public policy, and medicine. Two recent social and technological shifts make this topic …Aug 26, 2003 · Karl Marx (1818–1883) is often treated as a revolutionary, an activist rather than a philosopher, whose works inspired the foundation of many communist regimes in the twentieth century. It is certainly hard to find many thinkers who can be said to have had comparable influence in the creation of the modern world. C.E.) was a Neoplatonist philosopher born in Tyre in Phoenicia. He studied with Longinus in Athens and then with Plotinus in Rome from 263–269 C.E. and became a follower of the latter’s version of Platonism. Porphyry wrote in just about every branch of learning practiced at the time but only a portion of his large output is extant.Jan 18, 2019 · Counterfactuals. First published Fri Jan 18, 2019. Modal discourse concerns alternative ways things can be, e.g., what might be true, what isn’t true but could have been, what should be done. This entry focuses on counterfactual modality which concerns what is not, but could or would have been. 15.6.2022 ... Alexander, Larry, and Michael Moore. 2020. “Deontological Ethics.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Winter 2020 ed.Edith Stein (1891–1942) was a realist phenomenologist associated with the Göttingen school and later a Christian metaphysician. She was a Jew who converted to Catholicism in 1922 and was ordained a Carmelite nun in 1933. She died in Auschwitz in 1942. She was subsequently declared a Catholic martyr and saint.Maurice Jean Jacques Merleau-Ponty (1908–1961), French philosopher and public intellectual, was the leading academic proponent of existentialism and phenomenology in post-war France. Best known for his original and influential work on embodiment, perception, and ontology, he also made important contributions to the philosophy of art, history ...Aug 30, 2003 · Creationism. First published Sat Aug 30, 2003; substantive revision Fri Sep 21, 2018. At a broad level, a Creationist is someone who believes in a god who is absolute creator of heaven and earth, out of nothing, by an act of free will. Such a deity is generally thought to be “transcendent” meaning beyond human experience, and constantly ... William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347) is, along with Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus, among the most prominent figures in the history of philosophy during the High Middle Ages. He is probably best known today for his espousal of metaphysical nominalism; indeed, the methodological principle known as “Ockham’s Razor” is named after him.The hallmarks of Ibn Rushd’s work are his convictions that philosophy is capable of demonstrative certainty in many domains, that it is Aristotle who should be our preeminent guide in philosophy, and that philosophy should play a central role within religious inquiry, rather than being an alternative to religion.The following sections treat three key aspects of the philosophy of Confucius, each different but all interrelated, found throughout many of these diverse sets of sources: a theory of how ritual and musical performance functioned to promote unselfishness and train emotions, advice on how to inculcate a set of personal virtues to prepare people ...Dec 22, 2003 · Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry. First published Mon Dec 22, 2003; substantive revision Wed Feb 12, 2020. Plato’s discussions of rhetoric and poetry are both extensive and influential. As in so many other cases, he sets the agenda for the subsequent tradition. And yet understanding his remarks about each of these topics—rhetoric and poetry ... The Argument from Unreliability—First Version. [P1] One is justified in believing on the (sole) basis of a putative source of evidence only if it is reliable. [P2] Intuitions (or intuitions of type T) are not reliable. [C] Beliefs based (solely) on intuitions (or intuitions of type T) are not justified.Feb 18, 2007 · Philosophy of History. First published Sun Feb 18, 2007; substantive revision Tue Nov 24, 2020. The concept of history plays a fundamental role in human thought. It invokes notions of human agency, change, the role of material circumstances in human affairs, and the putative meaning of historical events. It raises the possibility of “learning ... Philosophy of Biology in Latin America [ August 21, 2023] Meritocracy [ August 3, 2023] Mind (Heart-Mind) in Chinese Philosophy [ July 10, 2023] Transformative Experience [ June 1, 2023] Arabic and Islamic Philosophy of Religion [ May 31, 2023] Propositional Logic [ May 18, 2023] Atonement [ April 5, 2023]Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), which as of Summer 2023, has nearly 1800 entries online. From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is maintained and kept up-to-date by an expert or group of experts in the field. All entries and substantive updates are refereed by the members of a distinguished ...First published Wed Dec 16, 2015; substantive revision Fri Oct 9, 2020. Decision theory is concerned with the reasoning underlying an agent’s choices, whether this is a mundane choice between taking the bus or getting a taxi, or a more far-reaching choice about whether to pursue a demanding political career. (Note that “agent” here stands ...A Greek philosopher of Ephesus (near modern Kuşadası, Turkey) who was active around 500 BCE, Heraclitus propounded a distinctive theory which he expressed in oracular language. He is best known for his doctrines that things are constantly changing (universal flux), that opposites coincide (unity of opposites), and that fire is the basic ...27.7.2020 ... Anyway, I'm wondering about the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Is this considered a good source of philosophical material? Is it ...About the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Brief Description; The SEP's Publishing Model; History; History of Grants; Publications; Acknowledgements; Brief Description. Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), which as of Summer 2023, has nearly 1800 entries online.Nov 9, 2005 · 5. Locke and Punishment. John Locke defined political power as “a right of making laws with penalties of death, and consequently all less Penalties” ( Two Treatises 2.3). Locke’s theory of punishment is thus central to his view of politics and part of what he considered innovative about his political philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Coverage Dates: 1997 - present. Provider: Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, ...1. Life, Work, and Influence. Born in 1770 in Stuttgart, Hegel spent the years 1788–1793 as a student in nearby Tübingen, studying first philosophy, and then theology, and forming friendships with fellow students, the future great romantic poet Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843) and Friedrich von Schelling (1775–1854), who, like Hegel, would become one of …1. Overview. Work in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has produced computer programs that can beat the world chess champion, control autonomous vehicles, complete our email sentences, and defeat the best human players on the television quiz show Jeopardy.AI has also produced programs with which one can converse in natural …Within biology, species are the fundamental units of biological classification. Species are also units of evolution—groups of organisms that evolve in a unified way. Outside of biology, the concept of species plays a role in debates over …Our implementation of a DRW is embodied by the Stanford Encyclo-pedia of Philosophy (SEP) <http://plato.stanford.edu/>. In the remain-der of this paper, we document this particular …Syntactic simplicity, or elegance, measures the number and conciseness of the theory’s basic principles. Ontological simplicity, or parsimony, measures the number of kinds of entities postulated by the theory. One issue concerns how these two forms of simplicity relate to one another. There is also an issue concerning the justification of ...We use cookies to improve your website experience. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie ...Objectification is a notion central to feminist theory. It can be roughly defined as the seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman, as an object.In this entry, the focus is primarily on sexual objectification, objectification occurring in the sexual realm.Process Philosophy. First published Mon Oct 15, 2012; substantive revision Thu May 26, 2022. Process philosophy is based on the premise that being is dynamic and that the dynamic nature of being should be the primary focus of any comprehensive philosophical account of reality and our place within it. Even though we experience our world and ...1. Overview of the Dialogue. Plato’s Parmenides consists in a critical examination of the theory of forms, a set of metaphysical and epistemological doctrines articulated and defended by the character Socrates in the dialogues of Plato’s middle period (principally Phaedo, Republic II–X, Symposium).According to this theory, there is a single, eternal, unchanging, …Counterfactuals. First published Fri Jan 18, 2019. Modal discourse concerns alternative ways things can be, e.g., what might be true, what isn’t true but could have been, what should be done. This entry focuses on counterfactual modality which concerns what is not, but could or would have been.The Greek word sophistēs, formed from the noun sophia, ‘wisdom’ or ‘learning’, has the general sense ‘one who exercises wisdom or learning’. As sophia could designate specific types of expertise as well as general sagacity in the conduct of life and the higher kinds of insight associated with seers and poets, the word originally ...“Game Theory, Evolution, and Justice,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 28(4): 325–358. –––, 2018. Strategic Justice: Convention and Problems of Balancing Divergent Interests, New York: Oxford University Press. Weisberg, Michael, 2007a. “Who is a Modeler?” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 58(2): 207–233.Modal Logic. A modal is an expression (like ‘necessarily’ or ‘possibly’) that is used to qualify the truth of a judgement. Modal logic is, strictly speaking, the study of the deductive behavior of the expressions ‘it is necessary that’ and ‘it is possible that’. However, the term ‘modal logic’ may be used more broadly for a ...First published Wed Dec 14, 2005; substantive revision Sat Apr 11, 2020. The term "epistemology" comes from the Greek words "episteme" and "logos". "Episteme" can be translated as "knowledge" or "understanding" or "acquaintance", while "logos" can be translated as "account" or "argument" or "reason ...First published Mon Oct 15, 2012; substantive revision Thu May 26, 2022 Process philosophy is based on the premise that being is dynamic and that the dynamic nature of …Edith Stein (1891–1942) was a realist phenomenologist associated with the Göttingen school and later a Christian metaphysician. She was a Jew who converted to Catholicism in 1922 and was ordained a Carmelite nun in 1933. She died in Auschwitz in 1942. She was subsequently declared a Catholic martyr and saint.Proclus. First published Wed Mar 16, 2011; substantive revision Mon Aug 3, 2020. Proclus of Athens (*412–485 C.E.) was the most authoritative philosopher of late antiquity and played a crucial role in the transmission of Platonic philosophy from antiquity to the Middle Ages.Jul 1, 2003 · One of the ways that non-human animals negotiate their social environments is by being particularly attentive to the emotional states of others around them. When a conspecific is angry, it is a good idea to get out of his way. Animals that develop life-long bonds are known to suffer from the death of their partners. Edith Stein (1891–1942) was a realist phenomenologist associated with the Göttingen school and later a Christian metaphysician. She was a Jew who converted to Catholicism in 1922 and was ordained a Carmelite nun in 1933. She died in Auschwitz in 1942. She was subsequently declared a Catholic martyr and saint.Personal Identity. Personal identity deals with philosophical questions that arise about ourselves by virtue of our being people (or as lawyers and philosophers like to say, persons ). This contrasts with questions about ourselves that arise by virtue of our being living things, conscious beings, moral agents, or material objects.May 1, 2001 · Aristotle describes ethical virtue as a “ hexis ” (“state” “condition” “disposition”)—a tendency or disposition, induced by our habits, to have appropriate feelings (1105b25–6). Defective states of character are hexeis (plural of hexis) as well, but they are tendencies to have inappropriate feelings. Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), which Counterfactuals. First published Fri Jan 18, 2019. Modal discou Carl Schmitt. First published Sat Aug 7, 2010; substantive revision Thu Aug 29, 2019. Carl Schmitt (1888–1985) was a conservative German legal, constitutional, and political theorist. Schmitt is often considered to be one of the most important critics of liberalism, parliamentary democracy, and liberal cosmopolitanism.Logic and Ontology. First published Mon Oct 4, 2004; substantive revision Mon Mar 13, 2023. A number of important philosophical problems are at the intersection of logic and ontology. Both logic and ontology are diverse fields within philosophy and, partly because of this, there is not one single philosophical problem about the relation between ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes schol Sep 25, 2007 · Philosophy of Mathematics. If mathematics is regarded as a science, then the philosophy of mathematics can be regarded as a branch of the philosophy of science, next to disciplines such as the philosophy of physics and the philosophy of biology. However, because of its subject matter, the philosophy of mathematics occupies a special place in ... Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry. First published Mon Dec 22, 2003; substantive revision Wed Feb 12, 2020. Plato’s discussions of rhetoric and poetry are both extensive and influential. As in so many other cases, he sets the agenda for the subsequent tradition. And yet understanding his remarks about each of these topics—rhetoric and poetry ... About the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Brief Des...

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